The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK. The United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The UK is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million.
The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq mi). The country occupies the major part of the British Isles archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands.
Around 65.5 million people live in the UK. They can be divided into four big nationalities based on the countries where they live. These countries, and the names of the people and language spoken there, are as follows:
The United Kingdom straddles the higher mid-latitudes between 49° and 61° N. It is on the western seaboard of Afro-Eurasia, the world's largest land mass. Since the UK is always in or close to the path of the polar front jet stream, frequent changes in pressure and unsettled weather are typical. Many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of the UK is cool and often cloudy, and high temperatures are infrequent.