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The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK. The United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The UK is a unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million.

The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq mi). The country occupies the major part of the British Isles archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands.

Around 65.5 million people live in the UK.[11] They can be divided into four big nationalities based on the countries where they live. These countries, and the names of the people and language spoken there, are as follows:

  • England is the biggest country, and the one where most people in the UK live. People who live in England are called English. Their native language is called English, which is spoken by almost everyone in the UK and has become a global lingua franca. A few people in the southwest part of England can speak Cornish, a Celtic language.
  • Scotland, to the north of England, is the second biggest country. People who live here are called Scottish, and some speak languages called Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic language, or Scots, which is a lot like English but is different from it.
  • Wales is to the west of England. Its people are called Welsh and have their own Celtic language which is also called Welsh. Not everyone in Wales can speak Welsh, but almost everyone can speak English.
  • Northern Ireland is on the island of Ireland, which is west of Great Britain where the other three countries are on. Some Irish people live here and speak Irish, another Celtic language, or Ulster Scots, a dialect of the language spoken in Scotland.

The United Kingdom straddles the higher mid-latitudes between 49° and 61° N. It is on the western seaboard of Afro-Eurasia, the world's largest land mass. Since the UK is always in or close to the path of the polar front jet stream, frequent changes in pressure and unsettled weather are typical. Many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of the UK is cool and often cloudy, and high temperatures are infrequent.

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